Home Important Posts Islam Islam, the Religion of Slavery
Home Important Posts Islam Islam, the Religion of Slavery

Islam, the Religion of Slavery

The slow collapse of Dubai, a desert mirage built on oil money, human misery and the greed of Western businesses, reminds us once again of the fate of all slave economies in the end. But for all the skyscrapers in Dubai, the glittering avenues built by slave labor and the abundance of luxury American and European automobiles-- the story of Dubai and Saudi Arabia is very much an old story in a Muslim Middle East, of fat prosperous sheiks clutching their ill gotten gains to themselves and ruling over harems and companies of slaves, until the end comes.

Like Muslim Brotherhood derived terrorists using the latest Web 2.0 social media as part of a quest to drive humanity back into the dark ages, the Gulf States are a very old story with the external gilt and glitz of modernity. While the Muslim world may employ the tools and utilities of the 21st century, even mimic its terminology, it has never left its own dark ages... and its dominant religious and social movements are all geared toward making sure that it never does.

And while above the skyscrapers gleam in Dubai's night sky, below are the armies of foreign workers, some prosperous Western Dhimmis driving luxury cars who come to do all the higher labor that the native Emiratis lack the ability or will to do, and outnumbering them are the labor gangs of Asian, Indian and Middle Eastern workers who erect the edifices designed by Western architects to fool Western investors into believing that the backward totalitarian sheikdom is actually a modern free republic.

As with any fairy tale, behind the glamour lies an ugly truth. A truth that goes back to the dates back to Mohammed. That stretches from slave caravans to slave ships. From England to America and through Turkey to Russia, the roots of slavery can be found in the Muslim slave trade.

The African continent was bled of its human resources via all possible routes. Across the Sahara, through the Red Sea, from the Indian Ocean ports and across the Atlantic. At least ten centuries of slavery for the benefit of the Muslim countries (from the ninth to the nineteenth)... Four million slaves exported via the Red Sea, another four million through the Swahili ports of the Indian Ocean, perhaps as many as nine million along the trans-Saharan caravan route, and eleven to twenty million (depending on the author) across the Atlantic Ocean.

The Impact of the Slave Trade on Africa, Elikia M’bokolo

The silent genocide is little spoken of, because it is an inconvenient interruption of the modern liberal historical narrative in which industrialized European powers exploited the unfortunate peoples of what is now the Third World. But Muslim slavery was indeed a genocide, one that stretched on for a thousand years of horror, misery and cruelty. That helped lead into the European era of slavery as well... but what is often forgotten is that before Europeans were slaveholders, they along with Africans, were slaves of Islam.

Many centuries before European slave ships began raiding African coasts, Muslim slave ships were raiding European coasts and sending their armies deep into the heart of Europe. While it is European slavery that is best known, it is Muslim slavery that came long before it and lasted long after it into the present day. The guest workers who labor on Dubai's mirage of skyscrapers and luxuries die by the thousands with no civil or human rights, cheated out of wages, imprisoned at a whim and viewed as subhuman by their Emirati masters-- are the latest extension of a tradition of Muslim slavery stretching for over a millennium.

Without slavery it is likely that Islam would have never survived long enough to become the worldwide menace that it is today. Mohammed, himself a slaveowner, exploited slavery to gain power in two ways.

First, Mohammed attracted men to join his cause by allowing them to raid caravans and towns, seizing goods and carrying off men, women and children into slavery. The men would be sold to labor, the women would be raped and then perhaps taken as concubines or forcibly married, as Mohammed himself did on more than one occasion. The children would be raised in slavery.

By treating non-Muslims as subhuman property, Mohammed was able to create an important financial incentive for men to join him in his wars to conquer the region-- as well as demonstrating to those who refused to convert and join him just what would happen to them and their families if they refused to bow to him. By invalidating the marriages of captured women, Mohammed simultaneously legalizing both rape and adultery under the banner of Islam.

Back when Mohammed was essentially running a biker gang with a religion, his dehumanization of non-Muslims turned anyone who had not become a Muslim into human loot to satisfy their greed and appetites. Had Mohammed not done this, he would have ended up as nothing more than another nomad cultist with delusions of grandeur. But by trading in human chattel, his religion gained "followers" who wanted loot and slaves, more than they wanted "Allah".

Second, Mohammed promised freedom to slaves who came to join him. This allowed him to expand the ranks of his followers further, while posturing as morally being opposed to slavery. This cynical maneuver in which Mohammed and his followers turned non-Muslims into slavery, yet promised freedom to slaves who agreed to become Muslims is often cited by Muslims who are looking to promote Mohammed as being opposed to slavery.

In fact Mohammed very much favored slavery, he simply understood that turning his army into a magnet for escaped slaves whom he could transform into free men through his omnipotent religious impramptur, would swell his ranks and diminish those of his enemies. Mohammed himself owned slaves, and raped and abused them. And today slavery remains far more widespread in the Muslim world, while it has become extinct in Christian and Jewish countries.

Of all these slave routes, the "slave trade" in its purest form, i.e. the European Atlantic trade, attracts most attention and gives rise to most debate. The Atlantic trade is the least poorly documented to date, but this is not the only reason. More significantly, it was directed at Africans only, whereas the Muslim countries enslaved both Blacks and Whites.

The Impact of the Slave Trade on Africa, Elikia M’bokolo

While the European slavery was more labor oriented, with racial justifications used to maintain a slave economy-- Muslim slavery has traditionally been more luxury oriented. The Europeans may have seen slavery as a convenient means of production, Muslims traditionally saw slaves as a luxury in and of themselves. That is why slavery in the European world was more limited to developing economies with a labor shortage and high transportation costs such as the Americas, while in the Muslim world it is traditionally the most prosperous countries with a surplus of the wealthy who collected the most slaves.

The Zanj Rebellion in 9th century Iraq in which half a million slaves rebelled against the Muslim Empire of the Abbasid Caliphate virtually prefigures the state of affairs in present day Dubai and Saudi Arabia. And indeed Dubai and Saudi Arabia may well face the same if enough of their abused workers ever turn a riot into an outright uprising, that will likely have to be crushed with borrowed US troops acting on behalf of the Saudis and Emiratis.

Unlike European slavery where the number of slaves related to production, Muslim slavery places no limits on slavery because it is as much a luxury as a means of production. That is also why slavery became extinct in European colonies, as much on economic as on moral grounds, but can never go extinct in the Muslim world, because the moral grounds and personal example for the maintenance of slavery was provided by Mohammed himself, and Muslim slavery is not rooted exclusively in the rationale of production, but in the sense of Muslim superiority.

Slavery may be odious in the free world, but the Muslim world is by no means free. And the social nature of an un-free world is a world of masters and slaves. In a society of masters and slaves, the best way to demonstrate your freedom is by owning slaves.

While the prosperous citizens of a free nation demonstrate their accomplishment through hard work, in a master-slave society the prosperous demonstrate their prosperity through public laziness and self-indulgence. In a master-slave society, freedom means the freedom to do nothing, the freedom to have a slave do it for you instead. And that is Dubai, Kuwait and Saudi Arabia in a nutshell... in which foreign workers make up much of the population and do everything. A Briton to manage your investments, an American to pump your oil, a Filipino maid for your second wife to boss around, a Ukranian to include in your harem and a Thai to work at your construction site. That is a Muslim's idea of paradise and the dream of Dubai. It is the mindset behind Muslim slavery and it is why Muslim slavery continues into the present day.

One cannot reform Islam, without first reforming Muslims. Yet where does one begin reforming the culture of slavery, the ethos of the master and slave that is so deeply embedded into Islam that it in fact is Islam? Muslims describe themselves as the Slaves of Allah, because that is the deepest form of loyalty they can imagine.

Islam is the Master-Slave dynamic of the Middle East writ large into a religion, with Muslims viewing themselves as the slaves of Allah, and everyone else as their slaves. Within Islam, the higher status Saudis who style themselves the keepers of Mecca and the birthplace of Mohammed, feel free to enslave other Arab Muslims. Arab Muslims in turn enslave African and Asian Muslims, whom they consider racially inferior. And these in turn move to Europe where they view Europeans and other resident non-Muslims as inferior to them, as slaves.

Islam in short is nothing more than slavery in religious form, relying on the sort of crude punishments you would dispense to a slave, and the sort of crude rewards you would offer to a slave-- namely the chance to enslave and abuse others, and sample forbidden luxuries. Islam is a religion of slavery for a religion of slaves.

It is no wonder then that the modern day Jihad in built on slavery, funded by the royal families of the Gulf States, using the oil revenues produced by the oil pumps that they would never sully their own fat fingers with, with the aim of destroying and enslaving the civilized world that stands between them and world power. The Wahhabi mosques rising up across the world, their minarets and crescents, are the banners of a worldwide call to slavery. For mankind to fall to its knees and bow toward Saudi Arabia, to the Masters of Mecca, the paymasters of Al Queda and a thousand other Muslim terrorist groups around the world all clamoring for their own states and territories as part of a new Muslim Empire.

The question is will we dare to resist them?


  1. Anonymous10/11/11

    It is forever amazing to me the fact that as a society we, the populace of these united states, choose to ignore the facts that you have enumerated. It infuriates me and yet, if I were to act on this, I feel assured that I would be excoriated.

  2. It is also no wonder why the Left and particularly the OSW lot, find common cause with islam as both desire to loot and enslave others. Thank goodness that islam is not even close to being a real-life Arabian version of the fictional Draka (albeit in terms of competence -http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_Domination ).

    I’ve always thought that the Islamic racial caste system can be broken down into the following (though it can be argued back and forth as to where the Europeans, Turkic and Indian Peoples are placed on the caste system based both on history and where things stand now):
    1) Arabs - with Hejazi / Arabian Peninsula Arabs at the top particularly those claiming to be Sayyid or Quraishi, while Arabized peoples outside Arabia in North Africa and West Asia are a step below with Shia and other non-sunni Arabs at the bottom.
    2) Persian / Iranian peoples – mostly Persian / Shia desire to be the top dog in the caste system, classed as 2nd due to being conquered first.
    3) Europeans (aka white converts) – classed at 3rd due to Roman areas being conquered after the sassanids fell, also I recall one nazi lamenting that the Germans were never islamized as they would have made better muslims via racial superiority (along with Europeans bringing about the Industrial Revolution).
    4) Turkic peoples – classed at 4th due to being conquered after the Persians and Romans (e.g. Europeans) though the islamized Turks brutality and the arab / persian fear of the Turks puts them up there.
    5) Indian peoples – 5th due to being conquered after the others though the deaths of 100+ Hindus and Buddhists at their hands means they are as bad as the rest of them.
    6) Other (e.g. Berbers, Asian muslim groups, bi/multiracial, etc) –
    7) *Jewish – either Jewish converts to islam or those with Jewish decent that can never get rid of the stigma of being descended from Jews. I recall reading about a Persian Jew who converted to islam, only to be killed after his Jewish roots surfaced, not sure if it was Rashid-al-Din Hamadani or someone else though.
    8) *Black - Abd = Slave
    * - means that I am unsure who muslims see as a lower life form within the Islamic caste system, a Black muslim or a muslim of Jewish descent.

  3. Anonymous10/11/11

    I found your comment a bit strange ( "while it (slavery) has become extinct in Christian and Jewish countries."), lumping slavery in a Jewish country that ended over two thousand years ago, with hundreds of years of extreme cruelty practiced by Christian countries, ending relatively recently (as late as 1928 in Alabama).

    The Torah definition of a slave is not really a slave, but more like an indentured servant, with rights including a day of rest, the right to flee, protection from injury ...etc. And the Rambam specifically talks about how one should treat a slave kindly.

    I am definitely part of your "choir", in your across the board top notch analysis, but that oversight bothered me.

  4. Anonymous10/11/11

    At the height of the slave trade in 17- 19th century an estimated six million Africans made the journey across the Atlantic Ocean.A large proportion of slaves ended up in the Caribbean,approximately 42%. Around 38% went to Brazil and about 5%, went to North America.

    Millions of white Europeans from the Baltic states,UK and Balkans end up in Islamic slave markets, the females being a particular favorite for sexual exploitation.

    Some of the descendants of African traders are alive today.

    Mohammed Ibrahim Babatu is the great great grandson of Baba-ato (Babatu), the famous Muslim slave trader, who was born in Niger and conducted his slave raids in Northern Ghana in the 1880s.

    Babatu doesn't see anything wrong with slavery.
    "With hindsight, we feel remorse that these things happened and our great great grandfathers took part in the trade. But at that time it was a normal thing. It's just like what is happening today. It was a market; people were bought and sold, They were traded for gunpowder or guns in exchange for human beings. Sometimes you look at it from a human and religious point of view, sometimes you feel it was a very bad thing, but it happened. "

    Arab and Middle Eastern slave trade continues today.
    Saudi Arabia has an estimated 450,000 slaves,20% of the population.

    According to CBS news slaves are sold for $50-$100 apiece.
    CNN has also quoted the U.S. State Department: "The [Sudanese] government's support of slavery and its continued military action which has resulted in numerous deaths are due in part to the victims' religious beliefs."

    The trading of children has been reported in modern Nigeria and Benin. The children are kidnapped or purchased for $20 – $70 each by slavers in poorer states, such as Benin and Togo, and sold into slavery in sex dens or as unpaid domestic servants for $350.00 each to the wealthy in Bahrain,Saudi Arabia,Dubai,Jordan,Nigeria and Gabon.

    Christian Slaves, Muslim Masters: White Slavery in the Mediterranean, the Barbary Coast and Italy, 1500-1800 (Early Modern History) by Robert C. Davis (Nov 4, 2004)

    White Gold by Giles Milton (May 9, 2005)

    Islamic Jihad by M.A. Khan.

  5. Anonymous10/11/11

    Using Mohammed as an explanation for present day behaviors of the Arabs helps them "justify" their behavior.
    They should have abandoned these practices regardless of the "religious" roots. It is like understanding their burning the
    building of The newspaper that made some fun of them. It should not be accepted, and they should go to jail regardless of their "sensitivities". How to resist them ? By not accepting these practices. The Muslim strategy and to test the limits. They are intimidating but if you stand up to them and not accept it – they will have to give up.

    P.S. , slaves in the Torah are those who sell themselves to work because of debts that they cannot pay and therefore after 7 years they are free.

  6. Great essay, Daniel. I’ve been saying it for years: all those skyscrapers and developments in Saudi Arabia and the Gulf States, especially in Dubai, built with imported, criminally cheap labor, are white elephants, gargantuan examples of vanity, as the Pyramids were to the pharaohs, and depend on a thriving West to have the least economic viability. As for Islam, yes, it is a slave’s religion. The average Muslim is a manqué who adheres to Islam because it saves him the trouble of thinking, of forming his own identity or “self,” of becoming a distinct individual moved by his own values and purposes. Moral issues? Allah or Mohammad says so. End of argument.

  7. Why do so many black Americans convert voluntarily to Islam? Are they so ignorant as to be unaware that till today black African people are sold into slavery in the Muslim world?

  8. Anonymous10/11/11

    One of OBL's wives said in an interview in Switzerland that Saudi Arabia is just the Taliban in luxury.

    Will we dare to resist them? I think we would if our people understood what is going on. Like any disorder, the first step to getting better is recognizing the problem. We did not wake up to Hitler until he took more land. It may take something similarly catastrophic to wake us up. In the meantime, articles like this can be written and propagated in the hopes we can make a difference.

  9. Anonymous10/11/11

    Well done for covering this subject that is often swept under the carpet by leftists, one commentator who you may wish to check out is the excellent atheist debater Martin J Willet ; "Slavery - Not A Black & White Issue" ; http://www.youtube.com/user/MartinJWillett#p/u/2/lLrJqes7FSQ

  10. Anonymous10/11/11

    wow, what an article. knish, no one gets it like you get it.....

    btw, saud al-faisal, saudi's foreign minister, is the son of a slave -- never mentioned anywhere

    -- spanky

  11. Anonymous10/11/11

    Thank you Daniel for another great article.

    Listen to the passionate lecture from dr. John Alembillah Azumah on this subject.
    He's from Ghana and wrote the book The legacy of Arab-Islam in Africa.


  12. Anonymous10/11/11

    The name of the religion is "Submission." Submit? Submit to what? Submit all personal individuality and freedom to the slavery of the group. Rabid, foaming at the mouth conformity. And whatever you do, don't try to leave the group for saner territory.

    No thanks.

  13. Thanks for another excellent article Daniel.

    It's sick to think that throughout my entire primary and secondary school education, whitey, Christians and Europeans were presented as the only parties responsible for African slavery.

    Doesn't Mauritania also practice slavery of kuffars, openly, if not legally?

  14. It is forever amazing to me the fact that as a society we, the populace of these united states, choose to ignore the facts that you have enumerated.

  15. Very interesting article!

    I used to think "why was the children of Ishmael called "wild ass of a man" in the Bible" by a loving God? then I concluded that they needed that toughness to behave. And certainly now they have this religion called Islam -all about submitting to the One who called them an ass.

    But this messes up my theory! lol. But its so true what you are saying.

    But i think before we even hope for a solution, we have to understand that there are those in the European world who also like the idea of slavery -even now. Those are probably the ones who would play into Islam's struggles, I think.

    Meaning to say, its a battle of "good vs evil" and to lump all from the Euro side as 'good' leaves us with a blind spot. At the same time, it seems easy to lump all those in the Islam side as 'evil' simply because they can't do nothin anyway to help. (very few exceptions).

    Mindrider's question is a good one. I've often wondered about this over and over. I secretly think the truth is that they also want what the Muslims want as written in Knish's article. could be wrong.

    I also agree there is a difference form Christian type slavery (no rule slavery) and Jewish biblical slavery (where the Torah pretty much tells you to redeem your relative however you can, and lays down rules as to how to treat the slave).

    And lastly, I too was taught in school that slavery was Euro on Africans and I think that was for a purpose. A purpose that is no longer beneficial anymore and so this truth is now coming out more and more.

  16. Anonymous29/8/12

    Eye opening article. Just wish to point out though, in yout third paragraph, you write: "labour gangs of Asian,Indian and Middle eastern...", Do you mean by"Indian", people of India? because then they would come under Asian... since India is in Asia? So just wondering about Asian and Indian.

  17. Anonymous2/9/12

    It is the ultimate trap: You can be inducted into Islam, but you cannot leave Islam, unless you can afford a personnal security escort.

    Sultan Knish ends his essay with "The question is will we dare to resist them?" I believe this is indeed the critical question, because Islam, expanded by imperialist violence from a bicycle gang in the sand to a quarter of humanity in some 14 centuries has demonstrated what can be accomplished by bullying on a planetary scale, with no particular incentive, nor ability to change their goals and methods.

    I think everything that applies to ordinary bullies applies to the islamists: They have to be confronted, and defeated, there is no other way. So it is childish to complain about the abuses of Islam, the grown-up response is to resist them, if only we can muster the courage. This requires that our children be taught the pride of our Judeo-Christian heritage, and the courage to defend its values.

    Perhaps Western modernity is the biggest challenge ever to Islam. Suppose we begin by proclaiming a a declaration of energy independence, wouldn't that be good step in the right direction? Remeber, Islam works by harvesting that which they did not sow, and forcing others to do their bidding. If they don't ever get challenged to produce something by their own industry, what can change them?

  18. Islam began on camelback in the very same way the Hell's Angels began on motorbike. It is impossible to taste the flavour of Islam and live according to it without having been a member of some criminal gang of some sort. Mohammed's very motto and signature was "Aslim, Taslam" which means "Just submit, you'll be safe", and sumps up the mystical doctrine of any protection racket mafia. Islamic prosperity is always only short-lived, for it can only be based on looting and taxing. Once no more external booty is available, and this will happen very soon for the Gulf countries, and pre-eminently Dubai as a new discovery will make petroleum obsolete, the various gangs fight each other until the territory goes back to the early Middle Ages, and ideally to the stone age. Dubai is the very opposite of an agora like Athens, Jerusalem, Venice, Paris, London, Florence, Rio, of any human state or city worthwhile going to except under the duress of slavery, or to enjoy an ill-gotten booty of some sort (pun intended). It is a Hell's Angels' den. Each one of Dubai's tower should be bombed and burned down in remembrance of 9-11-2001, and also to help reduce the greenhouse gas footprint. I agree with you that peacemaking is most lethal in front of pure evil, and no place on earth sums up more evil of the purest kind as Dubai. It should be well understood that God intended Islam as a religion for criminals to be reduced to blissful poverty through well-ruled, polite obscurantism and corruption for want of a better rational argument with the most irrevocably lewd and mendacious part of humanity, it is not even a religion for animals as the Indian religion of Shiva is as it teaches the various postures of yoga in imitation of each species. The better Islam is practiced, the more primitive society reverts, until it gets so stone-age-like that even the Qur'an is forgotten and freedom is recovered out of pure illiteracy. Some criticize the rightmost Israelis who want to bomb back Gaza to the early Middle Ages, I am myself very sorry to see a once most cultured and humanistic nation becoming dumbed down in the American redneck style and more and more like the caricature many anti-Semites make of them, but they have a point : the common people of Gaza, even more than the neighbouring Israelis who get racketed and rocketed would be far better off if any technology or knowledge dating from later than the Middle Ages would be prohibited of use in the said territory, and encouraged to make and sell ancient arab handicrafts of all sorts as in a kind of open-air museum of civilization. For anyway even in a quite short run it is God's use of Islam to make violent or dishonest people revert to that state. Dubai is an ugly and unnecessary short-lived intermediate state between late Western parasitical service-economy capitalism and ultimate Islamic drug-like slumber.

  19. Anonymous3/12/12

    When blogs become the recluse for hate propagating hatred to solicit alms and invite throngs more of their fellow hate campaigners like those that dehumanize earth, of persona like Daniel Greenfield, will certain to result in more conflicts, more trouble for the world.

    Islam like many other religions has had the tumult like any other; the middle ages where man’s beastly characters divided the expanse of earth in wars only demons may be fitting to live was the era of the Christian world. Earth they say was flat, however science ushered in by the Islamic renaissance taught about medicine and mathematics which as we know is how we managed to be as proactively human and modern with the technical know-how allowing us the fortitude of space travel and mass production of food and essential services.

    Slavery was an American fiasco and had to deal with a civil war that had people dead in hordes and hate crimes resulting in apartheid style racial segregation.

    We live in a world enslaved by the industrialized nations, people who are not of the Islamic faith. They launder thievery absconding from the weaker nations of this world sucking the blood out of the weaker people of earth and they have writers like Daniel Greenfield to propagate their greed.

  20. Lubna D12/12/12

    Your articles just like the minority that you highlight in it are very extremist oriented and while some of the facts you mention are true i find them very distorted and biased.

    you are a good writer though but i wish your posts were more transparent

  21. Anonymous5/3/13

    Your statement "European slave ships began raiding African coasts" is flatly incorrect.

    The Europeans did not "raid" the African coast to "snatch" slaves. The slave trade was well established by, and controlled by, Africans when the Europeans started to trade. The Africans themselves warred on other tribes and the captives were enslaved or they would sell their own people into slavery.
    Musa 1st of Mali is probably the best known but there are many others

    Richard Hakluyt acted in the same way as a Chamber of Commerce does today, giving advice and guidance to peole wishing to conduct business.

    His writings are comprehensive and still exist today (look up the Hakluyt Society) and his advice regarding dealing with the African Tyrants gives an entirely different picture. They had to TRADE for the slaves, not raid, and the protocols, bribes required, suitable items to trade and average prices were described in detail.

    Cross reference this with the merchant and port records which again record the details of the voyages (financial, cargo manifests, profits and detals of the ships engaged in the trade) reveals the exact number of ships employed. Note that the ships even until the 1860's were small (rarely exceeding 120 feet long) and could not have carried a sufficiently large armed crew to forcibly attack towns and villages and capture slaves in sufficient quantity to make the voyage pay. There simply would not have been enough room on the ship for the crew, raiding party, stores and the slaves to make it possible.

    How many slaves were transported across the Atlantic?

    Again, looking at the records of the successful voyages, averaging the number of slaves transported per ship and accounting for the ships lost and apportioning them an averaged number of slaves per ship (wether lost or successfully returning to their home port) totals about 12 Million over a period of 4 centuries..

    I find it inconceivable that over the course of one thousand years that “four million slaves exported via the Red Sea, another four million through the Swahili ports of the Indian Ocean, perhaps as many as nine million along the trans-Saharan caravan route” are realistic figures since the appetite and demand for slaves from Africa was insatiable. The losses between capture and on the route march were likely to have been high. Historically ALL black male slaves were castrated and the losses from this alteration done under the most primitive of consitions probably totalled 90% or greater of the males operated on. Hence they could not breed replacement slaves but always had to import new slaves.

    I DO tire of hearing about how the Europeans forcibly removed from Africa 50 million, make that a hundred million, a trillion, a bazillion gazillion million slaves (etc. etc. and so forth up to ridiculously high numbers) to suit the agendas of various groups when a careful study of readily available records permits an accurate figure to be arrived at.

    No such records exist for the historic and continuing bumbers of slaves that have been taken, and continuue to be taken, by the Arabs.

    Phil B


Post a Comment

You May Also Like