To understand how we got to the point that spending hundreds of millions of dollars to support a government run by people who have been at war with us for almost a century is a policy that most foreign policy experts endorse, it helps to take a brief trip back in time.
The Democratic Party, which stood at the helm during both hot wars, was able to link its brand to the wars by defining them as struggles for democracy. The process of de-nationalizing war from a conflict between nations and ethnic groups was only partly realized in WW1, where invective against the "Huns" still simmered, but was largely achieved in WW2; with some exceptions made for Japan.
This idealization of war made post-war reconstruction and alliance easier. National and ethnic grudges were set aside and replaced by ideological platforms. If the trouble was a lack of democracy, then all we needed to do was defeat the tyrant's armies, inject democracy and stand back. Focusing on democracy made it possible to rebuild Germany and Japan as quasi-pacifist entities expressing their grievances toward the Allies from the pacifistic stance of the moral high ground, rather than through military rearmament and revenge.
The United States had traded Hitler for Gunter Grass and while both hated the United States, Gunter Grass would write nasty essays about it, instead of declaring war on it.
And democracy made it easier to turn liberals against the Soviet Union, which had tossed aside every pretense of being a bottom-up system for what was clearly a top-down tyranny. The liberals who had believed in a war for democracy in Europe had difficulty tossing it aside after the war was over. And that emphasis on democracy helped make a national defense coalition between conservatives and liberals possible. Both might have fundamental disagreements, but they agreed that democracy was better than tyranny. And if that was true, then America was better than the USSR.
This strategy was effective enough against existing totalitarian systems. It however had a major weakness. It could not account for keeping a totalitarian ideology from taking power through the ballot box.
The assumption that because the Nazis and the Communists rejected open elections that they could not win open elections was wrong. Democracy of that kind is populism and totalitarian movements can be quite popular. The Nazis did fairly well in the 1932 elections and the radical left gobbled up much of the Russian First Duma. The modern Russian Communist Party is the second largest party in the Duma today.
Democratic elections do not necessarily lead to democratic outcomes, but the linkage of democracy to progress made that hard to see. The assumption that democracy is progressive and leads to more progress had been adopted even by many conservatives. That fixed notion of history led to trouble in Latin America and Asia. And it led to total disaster in the Arab Spring.
Cold War America knew better than to endorse universal democracy. Open elections everywhere would have given the Soviet Union more allies than the United States. The left attacked Eisenhower and Kennedy as hypocrites, but both men were correct in understanding that there was no virtue in overthrowing an authoritarian government only to replace it with an even more authoritarian government; whether through violence or the ballot box.
As time went on, Americans were assailed with two interrelated arguments. The left warned that the denial of democracy was fueling Third World rage against the United States. By supporting tyrants, we were conducting an occupation by proxy. And on the right we heard that tyranny was warping Third World societies into malignant forms. The left's version of the argument directed more blame at America, but both versions of the argument treated democracy as a cure for hostility.
The fundamental error that they made was in framing a new war with Islamism in terms of the ideas that had been applied to the Third World when its countries were pawns in the Cold War. The issue was no longer whether a Muslim country would align with the United States or the USSR, but whether it would express the historical destiny embedded in its religion.
The first great failure to understand this came in Iran. The Carter Administration aided what it thought was a historical revival that might restrain Communism, without realizing the genie being let out of the bottle. The entire course of the Arab Spring could have been foreseen 31 years earlier. And while, during the Cold War, there might have been some excuse for choosing Islamists over Communists, during the Arab Spring that same choice no longer applied.
The argument that the lack of democracy had made the Muslim world dysfunctional was always chancy. The best counterargument to it was that second and third-generation Muslims in Europe were often more radical than their immigrant parents. If democracy were a cure for Islamism, it was working very poorly in London, Oslo and Paris.
The assumption of the argument was that the tyranny that a people were living under was unnatural while the outcome of a democratic election would be natural. And yet, if a people have been warped for a thousand years by not living under a democracy, how could they be expected to choose a form of government that would not be warped? Was there any reason to expect that such efforts at democracy would not lead to tyranny?
The dangerous question, closed off by generations of faith in democracy, was whether a country’s bad behavior was the fault of its government or its people. In a truly absolute tyranny, such as North Korea, where the people have absolutely no room to deviate from dogma and are forced to worship the state, it may be reasonable to assume that the state does not truly represent the people. Comparing South Korea to North Korea gives us ample reason to believe that the effect of freeing North Korea would lead to an outcome more like East Germany and less like Egypt.
But few tyrannies are truly absolute. The dictatorship where a Kim Jong Il or a Gaddafi operate in their own version of reality while imposing their insane whims on the rest of the population are not as typical as most people think.
The average dictatorship is not all that fundamentally different from what a democracy would be like in the same place. Some, like Putin's Russia, blur the lines. Even when they don't go to the trouble of holding elections, they do rely on public consensus. The dictatorship where 99 percent of the people hate the dictator is a very rare thing. Mubarak, for example, had an extensive base of loyalists, and it would not be impossible to rule out their return to power, considering that Ahmed Shafik won 48.3% of the vote in the Egyptian presidential election, losing to Morsi by barely 120,000 votes.
The Arab Spring has taught us to question the idea that democracy is an absolute good. Initially the outcome of the Palestinian Arab elections that rewarded Hamas was thought not to apply to the wider region. That assumption proved to be wrong. We now know that Hamas' victory foreshadowed the Muslim Brotherhood's victory. And we know that Islamists have the inside track in elections because they represent a familiar ideology that has not been discredited in the minds of a majority of Muslims.
We can no longer afford to be bound by a Cold War argument against Communism that has outlived its usefulness, especially once liberals turned left and defected from a national security consensus. Universal democracy has proven to be about as universal a panacea as international law or the United Nations. And relying on it undermines our ability to look after our own interests and defend ourselves.
Classifying ideologies as democratic or undemocratic has blinded us to their content and their appeal. And it gives these ideologies an easy way to discredit our only line of attack against them. Too many Republicans were flailing after the Muslim Brotherhood's victory in Egypt; unable to articulate a reason why the United States should not support a democratically elected government. And yet the reasons are obvious, once we ignore the election as largely irrelevant to the nature of the Brotherhood and to the threat it poses to our interests.
Democracy only represents a choice. It does not obligate us to honor the choice of another people, especially if that choice is elementally hostile to us.
What our policymakers have forgotten is that the only democratic choices that they are obligated to honor are those made by their voters. And it is the safety, security and future of those voters that they are obligated to safeguard.
Democracy was once viewed, rightly or wrongly, as a form of American Exceptionalism. But reducing that exceptionalism to open elections misses the point. It isn't open elections that make Americans special; it's Americans who make open elections special. Instead of looking to systems, we should look to values. Instead of looking to governments, we should look to peoples.
We have spent too much time looking at systems, when we should have been looking at values. We have wrongly assumed that all religions and all peoples share the same basic values that democracy can unleash for the betterment of all. That has clearly been proven to be wrong. If we had looked instead at a poll which showed that 4 out of 5 Egyptians believe that adulterers should be stoned and thieves should have their hands cut off, we would have known how this democracy experiment was going to end and how much damage it would do to our national interests.
It's time to stop putting our faith in Democracy. Democracy for all is not the answer. Responsibility for all is. Our responsibility is not to agnostically empower other people to make the choices that will destroy our way of life, but to make those choices that will keep our way of life alive.
Such a tremendous improvement over your first published draft of this essay!ReplyDelete
This is why I believe that Saddam, Mubarak, Gaddafi, and Assad were or are better than anything that have replaced or will replace them: especially vis-a-vis the minority Christian populations. These tyrants were the most effective force for combatting Islamism.
The fact that Assad, Gaddafi, and Saddam were seen as anti-American made them all the more useful.
Liberals are the ones typically identified with multiculturalism. When George Bush believed in being able to democratize Iraq and Afghanistan he was practicing a kind of multiculturalism that would have you believe that any culture exposed to democracy will at least produce adequate results. But what if you expose say cats to democracy? Would cats have free and fair election? Would they have free press? Cats defending the individual rights of other cats? OK, they are not human. But can a Muslim who was raised on a totalitarian ideology that tells him to either kill or subjugate the infidel and who believes to be governed by divine law and divine will every moment of his life, can this Muslim really support democracy the way a westerner understands it?ReplyDelete
Now lets look at the Amnesty through this lens. If we add what will wind up 30-50 million Central Americans to the United States, can the United States remain a functioning democracy? The short answer is "no way in hell."
Cultures are not equal. The kind of culture the United States developed prior to the Socialist influences that started in the late 19th century and prior to the importation of countless millions of people from the parts of the world that never had a democracy was the flowering of the almost thousand year old British cultural tradition that grew the seeds of democracy slowly starting with the Magna Carta and that reached its pinnacle with the Glorious Revolution and then the American Revolution. All other cultures are inferior to what was achieved then. These cultures were not and are not capable of governing themselves democratically for any considerable length of time without going off the deep end, with the rare exceptions of a few very small and highly educated countries like Switzerland and Sweden or a few other descendents of the British culture.
Enough of the multicultural BS. Democracy IS the answer but only where the people up to the task. Everybody may be created equal, but by the time they reached adulthood most have been so set back by their culture that they are not capable of maintaining democracy. The United States should act accordingly, in its foreign and immigration policies and its educational system. Enough of this national suicide through dishonesty and pseudo-altruistic self-sacrifice!
You are correct. These people are ignorant and warped.ReplyDelete
There is an unfortunate, ubiquitous, and highly dangerous confusion about what "democracy" means, and I'm afraid Daniel commits that error, as well. Democracy was never the answer, anywhere, because anywhere it has been tried, it has lead to tyranny. The etymological root meaning of the term means "mob rule," as suggested by the O.E.D. ("popular government – people having rule, sway, or authority"). "Democracy" implies that no checks are made on the power or authority of the people or their elected officers or representatives. Our Founders, conscientious and intimately read students in ancient and modern political history, understood the dangers inherent in democracy and labored to create a constitutional republic, that is, one that enumerated the powers of government and protected individual rights from populist or mob nullification. That is what our Bill of Rights – now under attack by the left and the Obama administration and defended haphazardly and ineffectually by conservatives – was all about. "Democracy" and "republic" are not synonyms, although the latter term has been largely appropriated by dictatorships (the various "people's republics").ReplyDelete
As Daniel himself points out, most prominently the Russians and Germans in the last century "democratically" elected themselves dictators, and so have the Argentines, Indians, Venezuelans, Chinese, and other populations (with much help from blatant thuggery). The ancient Greeks and Romans consistently elected themselves tyrants. Most recently, aside from the U.S., Muslims elected themselves the Brotherhood, an organization which basically wishes to make its election to power the last in Egypt. And his point should be well taken that populations in whose cultures the notion of checks and balances and individual rights have been absent aren’t about to suddenly discover those values and clamor in the streets for them. In this country, the direct election of senators to the federal government was a major step in the direction of "pure" democracy, something the Founders abhorred and worked to prevent. If the Howard Zinn and Saul Alinsky types had their way, the Electoral College would be abolished, as well, together with presidential term limits. Professional "community organizing," prominent in Obama's work history, coupled with the Alinsky method of populist terrorism, is a particularly insidious and filthy form of democracy.
Individual rights should be proof and sacrosanct against all forms of populist or "democratic" pressure, but it is regrettable that this notion is absent in our current political elite, never mind amongst most American citizens. Discourse on the subject of "democracy" vs. individual rights and a constitutional republic will make no progress if intellectuals remain confused about the meaning of words. Remember that the Pledge of Allegiance says "…to the republic, for which it stands…." not "…to the democracy, for which it stands…." nor "…for liberty and justice for all…." and not "…for liberty and justice for some, but not all…." The Pledge is not just an expression of loyalty to a flag, but to the idea the flag represents, which is a constitutional republic that upholds the individual rights to life, liberty, property and happiness. These rights have been under concerted assault via "democracy" for well over a century.
Anyone doubting the truth of this position, should see The Federalist Papers and the Anti-Federalist Papers.
I saw something lastnight that seemed promising. The New York Times (I know!) had an article about a high levl Muslim Brotherhood's views and public statements regarding a wife's obedience and lower stature and justification for rape. It was a long article with lots of uncensored quotes. Now I find this promising not because it finally exists on the NYT, but because it was #3 on the yahoo and Google "currently trending". It had thousands of comments and the closest I could find for a liberal appeasement comment was essentially a "say it ain't so" type of comment. The article even mentioned the Brotherhood's connection to our own government, and no sign of the term "witch hunt".ReplyDelete
I think we will start to see that the one positive to come out of the Brotherhood's coup de etat in Egypt will be their exposure.
Democracy is four wolves and a sheep voting what's for dinner.ReplyDelete
Thank you Edward for another enlightening comment explaining the difference between democracy and a constitutional republic which I believe is the crux of the problem in this country along with Daniel's assessment that a system is never going to keep freedom alive since a system can and always is, manipulated to the advantage of some over others.ReplyDelete
Daniel, I would love to read your thoughts on Cyprus.ReplyDelete
Daniel, Here is a YouTube segment does a good job explaining difference of Democracy vs Republic forms of governing. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=JdS6fyUIklIReplyDelete
What was George Bush thinking ?
Democracy is like an iceberg, it's just the ten percent visible above the surface.
The Prerequisites for Democracy to exist are like the ninety percent of the iceberg below the surface, aparently never considered and forever hidden from sight and mind.
As someone already commented, we originally had a constituional republic.
“A lady asked Dr. Franklin Well Doctor what have we got a republic or a monarchy. A republic replied the Doctor, if you can keep it.”
-- Benjamin Franklin - The Records of the Federal Convention of 1787 - Dr. James McHenry
"The best argument against democracy is a five minute talk with the average voter."
-- Winston Churchill
'Democracy: Where the votes of two imbeciles are worth more than that of one wise man'
-- Adolf Hitler
Democracy is two wolves and a lamb voting on what to have for lunch;
Liberty is a well-armed lamb contesting the vote."
-- Benjamin Franklin
‘Democracy never lasts long. It soon wastes itself, exhausts and murders itself. There never was a democracy yet that did not commit suicide.’
-- Samuel Adams? / John Adams?
"Between a balanced republic and a democracy, the difference is like that between order and chaos."
-- Chief Justice John Marshall
"The democracy will cease to exist when you take away from those who are willing to work and give to those who would not."
-- Thomas Jefferson
"A [direct] democracy is nothing more than mob rule, where fifty-one percent of the people may take away the rights of the other forty-nine."
-- Thomas Jefferson
In a pure democracy, "there is nothing to check the inducement to sacrifice the weaker party or the obnoxious individual."
-- James Madison, Federalist Paper No. 10:
At the 1787 Constitutional Convention, "... that in tracing these evils to their origin every man had found it in the turbulence and follies of democracy."
-- Edmund Randolph
"Democracy is like a streetcar. When you come to your stop, you get off."
-- Recep Erdoğan - Prime Minister of Islamic Turkey
Vladtepe2: Thank you for seconding my remarks about democracy vs. a constitutional republic with all those quotations, particularly the ones from the Founders.ReplyDelete
While democracy appears to be the best form of government that we know, it is doomed to failure by its own unbending principle to protect the rights of those that wish to destroy it.ReplyDelete
The best argument against democracy is a five-minute conversation with the average voter. ~Winston ChurchillReplyDelete